volume profit analysis

Consequently, profits are suppressed and the balance sheet is distorted. Another drawback of a break-even analysis is that opponents aren’t taken into account. New entries to the market may have an impact on demand for your items or force you to adjust your prices, affecting your break-even point. Lets know about the steps to do break-even analysis and its advantages and disadvantages. Gross SalesGross Sales, also called Top-Line Sales of a Company, refers to the total sales amount earned over a given period, excluding returns, allowances, rebates, & any other discount.

Break-even analysis is broadly used to determine the number of units the business must promote so as to avoid losses. This calculation requires the business to find out promoting price, variable prices and glued costs. Once these numbers are decided, it’s fairly simple to calculate break-even point in items or gross sales value. This line can also be regarded as the total cost line because it starts from the point where fixed cost has been incurred and variable cost is zero.

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disadvantages of break even analysis of selling price per unit for a particular break-even point. The margin of safety of the firm can be known from this break­even chart. Margin of safety can be known by deducting break­even sales from the actual sales. It plays an important role as an indicator as to how the margin can be increased. Suppose, you are the investor of stock market and buys the stock of a reputed company at $ 120.

In spite of the above mentioned limitations, the break­even analysis has high place in financial management. The relations indicated in the break-even chart do not help for all levels of operations. Costs tend to be higher than shown on the static break-even chart when the plant’s operation approaches 100 percent of its capacity.

Break-even Analysis – Advantages

Because using that information, you can plan a new price strategy to stay in profit. Changing the business model of your business is quite similar to getting into a new business. You might have a few resources from the previous business, but you are required to consider other factors that might increase your expenses. That means you are required to pay same day wages to labors whether you are producing 200 units a day or 500 units a day. The same is true in the case of the maintenance cost of machines and production units. The variable cost can be divided into two types, such as direct variable cost and indirect variable cost.

Naturally, in that case, BEP will be that point where the Average https://1investing.in/ line will intersect the fixed cost line assuming that there will be no change in sales-mix. The fixed costs amount to Rs. 24,000 and the same is to increase by Rs. 8,000 if the output exceeds 4,000 units. In this respect it may be mentioned that if this chart contains only the details of appropriation of profit it may be called profit-appropriations BEC. It is wrong to assume that variable cost is constant for all the units produced, which is not valid. The variable cost can be different for products produced under different batches.

Break Even Point and Production Department

In a Break Even Analysis, you study the relationship between the revenue generated, fixed costs, and variable costs and use this information to make important decisions about your company. Returning to the example above, the contribution margin ratio is 40% ($40 contribution margin per item divided by $100 sale price per item). Therefore, the break-even point in sales dollars is $50,000 ($20,000 total fixed costs divided by 40%). Confirm this figured by multiplying the break-even in units by the sale price ($100), which equals $50,000. Alternatively, the calculation for a break-even point in sales dollars happens by dividing the total fixed costs by the contribution margin ratio.

The contribution per unit can be calculated by subtracting the variable cost per unit from selling price per unit. The term “Break-even” is used to refer to a situation where a company is neither making any profits nor losing any money. That means whatever business they do is enough to cover all types of costs incurred in the business. Companies use Break Even Analysis for the calculation of the exact number of sales that the company is required to make to cover all the costs.

price per unit

It is difficult to separate ‘Fixed’ and ‘Variable’ costs clearly. Bep indicates precision or mathematical accuracy of the point. However, in actual practice, the precise break-even volume cannot be determined and it can only be in the nature of a rough estimate. Therefore, critics have pointed out that the term `break-even area’ should be used in place of bep.

Limitations of Break-Even. Analysis

Put another way, it’s a financial calculation used to determine the number of products or services you need to sell to at least cover your costs. For Example, Labor rates will improve due to additional time if more units are produced. The break-even evaluation additionally assumes that each one units produced are also bought, which is not at all times the case. This tool fails to take into account the demand-side scenario, since not all models produced are sold on the assumed value. If a business wants to calculate margin of security (Version #2) for variety of models offered, then as a substitute of present sales level, selling worth per unit within the denominator. In such a case, some monopolistic conditions prevail and high profits are earned over a large range of production activity.

Contribution margin may be calculated by subtracting variable bills from the revenues. It’s unlikely that fixed costs will remain the same at different production levels. Profit-volume graph is a simplified form of break even chart and is an improvement over the break even chart as it clearly shows the relationship of profit to volume or sales.

Production Department and sales executives have to be conscious of the level of sales and the management is concern how they could covering the fixed and variable costs at all times. That’s the reason they frequently try to change the components of formula to reducing the number of units to produce and try to increase the profitability of the business. Managers can better make better manufacturing and gross sales determination in the event that they know the margin of safety for a specific services or products. When the margin of security is giant, the business would wish to strive new pricing, marketing and take risks hoping to further increase gross sales and revenues. On the opposite hand, if the margin of safety is meager, managers are likely to not change anything, since any small change might trigger losses.

External Recession cuts demand Break-even point unaffected, though safety margin is reduced. The analysis considers that the price of output as per assumed horizontal demand curve, which is only possible under perfect competitions. Break-even analysis always relates cost to the output, which may not be the case every time.


Using Break Even Analysis, you can calculate the funds required to start your business. You can use this information to raise funds from outside. Break Even Analysis is considered one of the most critical tools when someone is trying to raise funds for their business. Investors will ask for this information to know whether their investment in your business will be profitable or not. Break Even Analysis can be used by managers and accountants at any time to get an idea of total sales required to make to generate profit.

Semi variable costs are the costs that have characteristics of both variables as well as fixed costs. The value of break-even point is different for different businesses. For example, the break-even point for a company will be high if its initial fixed cost and variable cost are high.

Benefits and Limitations of Break-Even Analysis |Financial Management

However, it is crucial to use Break Even Analysis before you do any of the following. The Break Even Analysis tool is used not only for industrial purposes but also used by financial planners, marketers, managers, accountants, and entrepreneurs. Managers can use this tool for setting goals for their subordinates to achieve the required sales goal to generate profit. If a manager knows exactly how many sales they need to make, then he can push his employees to put efforts accordingly. Break-Even Analysis is a financial tool used by companies to determine at what point they will start making profits on entering a new market or launching a new product.


A break-even analysis will calculate what your revenues must be for your business to produce a profit. Internal Employing extra sales staff Fixed costs rise, so total costs rise and beak-even point rises. 2) Fixed costs only remain constant if the scale of production does not change. The whole revenue and whole cost lines are linear , since prices and variable prices are assumed to be fixed per unit. Break-even analysis provides an understanding of the behaviour of profits in relation to output.

Sales revenues do not vary proportionately with changes in volume of sales due to reduction in selling price as a result of competition or increased production. Say for example, if management decides to enhance the sales price of the product , it would have severe impact on the number of units required to sell before profitability. They may also change the variable costs for each units by adding more updated technology to the production process. Lower variable costs equate to greater profits per unit and reduce the total number that must be produced.

  • Needless to mention that that point will be the optimum level and that selling price of the products will be the optimum selling price of the products of the firm.
  • Some company concepts are simply not intended to be followed.
  • It assumes that all the costs can be divided into fixed and variable costs; that they vary in a linear fashion and that the principle of cost variability applies to them.
  • 2.The application of break-even analysis to a multiproduct firm is very difficult.
  • In this example there is a profit of Rs. 1,00,000 when the output is 50,000 units.

This graph suffers from the same limitations with which break even chart suffers. It is possible to construct a P/V graph for any data relating to a business from which a break even chart can be drawn. To calculate the Break-Even Point for which we have to divide the total fixed cost by the contribution per unit. Break-even point is considered a measurement tool that is used in cost accounting, business, and economics to determine the point when both the total cost and revenues are even. It gives an idea about contribution which means the difference between sales and variable cost.

Using the diagrammatical method, break-even point may be determined by pinpointing the place the two linear lines intersect. The whole revenue and total price traces are linear , since costs and variable costs are assumed to be constant per unit. The Break-even diagram can be modified to replicate completely different state of affairs with various costs and costs. The diagram clearly exhibits how a change in value or promoting value can impression the overall profitability of the enterprise.